Migratory Insects of North America

Odonata / Orthoptera / Hemiptera / Homoptera / Coleoptera / Lepidoptera


Return to Texas Entomology - Compiled by Mike Quinn

Odonata - Dragonflies

Aeshnidae - Darners

Migration Reference (not species' author)

Common Green Darner Anax junius Williams 1958

Swamp Darner Epiaeschna heros

Libellulidae - Skippers

Great Pondhawk Erythemis vesiculosa

Bar-winged Skimmer Libellula axilena

Twelve-spotted Skimmer Libellula pulchella Williams 1958

Painted Skimmer Libellula semifasciata

Great Blue Skimmer Libellula vibrans

Blue Dasher Pachydiplax longipennis

Wandering Glider Pantala flavescens Williams 1958

Spot-winged Glider Pantala hymenaea

Variegated Meadowhawk Sympetrum corruptum Opler 1971

Striped Saddlebags Tramea calverti

Carolina Saddlebags Tramea carolina

Black Saddlebags Tramea lacerata

Red Saddlebags Tramea onusta

Orthoptera - Grasshoppers

Acrididae - Short-horned Grasshoppers

Migratory Grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes Web link

Rocky Mountain Locust Melanoplus spretus (extinct) Riley 1877

Hemiptera - True Bugs

Lygaeidae - Seed Bugs

Large Milkweed Bug  Oncopeltus fasciatus Dingle 1978


Cicadellidae - Leafhoppers

Beet Leafhopper Circulifer tenellus Williams 1958

Potato Leafhopper

Empoasca fabae

Taylor & Reling 1986

Six-spotted Leafhopper Macrosteles fascifrons

Aphididae - Aphids

Greenbug Schizaphis graminum

Coleoptera - Beetles

Chrysomelidae - Leaf Beetles

Spotted Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata Johnson 1969

Coccinellidae - Lady Beetles

Convergent Ladybird Beetle Hippodamia convergens Rankin & Rankin 1980

Lepidoptera - Butterflies & Moths

Papilionidae - Swallowtails

Zebra Swallowtail

Eurytides marcellus Walker 2001

Pieridae - Whites & Sulphurs

Cabbage White  Pieris rapae Walker 2001

Great Southern White  Ascia monuste

Cloudless Sulphur Phoebis sennae Walker 1978

Apricot Sulphur Phoebis argante

Statira Sulphur Aphrissa statira Williams 1958

Lyside Sulphur Kricogonia lyside Gilbert 1985

Barred Yellow  Eurema daira Walker 2001

Mexican Yellow Eurema mexicana

Little Yellow Eurema (Pyrisitia) lisa Walker 2001

Sleepy Orange Eurema (Abaeis) nicippe Walker 2001

Nymphalidae - Brushfoots

American Snout Libytheana carinenta Gilbert 1985

Gulf Fritillary Agraulis vanillae Walker 1978, 1980, 1985

Common Buckeye Junonia coenia Walker 1978

Question Mark Polygonia interrogationis

Mourning Cloak  Nymphalis antiopa Williams 1958

Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta Walker 2001

Painted Lady Vanessa cardui Williams 1958

American Lady Vanessa virginiensis Walker 2001

Many-banded Daggerwing Marpesia chiron Williams 1958

Dingy Purplewing  Eunica monima Williams 1958

Common Mestra Mestra amymone

Monarch Danaus plexippus Urquhart & Urquhart 1977

Queen Danaus gilippus

Hesperiidae - Skippers

Long-tailed Skipper  Urbanus proteus Walker 1978

Dorantes Longtail Urbanus dorantes

Ocola Skipper  Panoquina ocola

Sphingidae - Sphinx Moths

Pink-spotted Hawkmoth Agrius cingulata

Mournful Sphinx Enyo lugubris

Ello sphinx Erinnyis ello Sala 1959

Obscure sphinx Erinnyis obscura Sala 1959

Tersa sphinx Xylophanes tersa

Noctuidae - Owlet Moths

Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon Hendrix & Showers 1992

Cotton Leafworm Alabama argillacea

Velvetbean Caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis

Black Witch Ascalapha odorata Williams 1958

Army Cutworm Euxoa auxiliaris

Corn Earworm Helicoverpa zea

Armyworm Pseudaletia unipuncta

Yellow Underwing Moth Noctua pronuba Baker & Mather 1982. 

Soybean Looper Pseudoplusia includens

Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua Mitchell 1979

Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia ni

White Witch Thysania agrippina

Owl Moth Thysania zenobia

Uraniidae - Swallowtail Moths

Urania Swallowtail Moth Urania fulgens Kendall 1978

Bibliography of North American Insect Migration

Abbott, C.H. 1951. A quantitative study of the migration of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui L. Ecology 32:155-171.

Aidley, D.J., editor. 1981 Animal Migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 264 pp.

Anonymous. 1991. Migration and Dispersal of Agricultural Insects. National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan. 285 pp.

Arbogast, R. 1966. Migration of Agraulis vanillae in Florida. Florida Entomologist 49:141-145.

Arnaud, P.H., Jr. 1972. Mass movement of Sympetrum corruotum [sic] (Hagen) (Odonata: Libellulidae) in central California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48(1):75-76.

Bagg, A.M. 1957. A Fall Flight of Dragonflies. Maine Field Naturalist 13:13-15.

Bagg, A.M. 1958. Fall emigration of the dragonfly Anax junius. Maine Field Naturalist,14:2-13.

Baker, R.R. 1968. A possible method of evolution of the migratory habit in butterflies. Phil. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 253:309-341.

Baker, R.R. 1969. The evolution of the migratory habit in butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology 38:703-746.

Baker, R.R. 1984. The dilemma: when and how to go or stay. Pp. 279-296 in: Vane-Wright, R.I. & P.R. Ackery, editors. The Biology of Butterflies. Academic Press, New York.

Baker, R.R. 1978. The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 1012 pp.

Baker, R.R. & Mather, J.G. 1982. Magnetic compass sense in the large yellow underwing moth, Noctua pronuba L. Animal Behavior 30:543-548.

Baust, J.G., A.H. Benton & G.D. Aumann. 1981. The influence of off-shore platforms on insect disperals and migration. Bulletin of the Entomological Society America 27:23-25.

Beebe, W. 1949. Migration of Papilionidae at Rancho Grande, north-central Venezuela. Zoologica 34:119-126.

Beebe, W. 1950a. Migration of Danaidae, Ithomiidae, Acraeidae and Heliconidae (butterflies) at Rancho Grande, north-central Venezuela. Zoologica 35:57-68.

Beebe, W. 1950b. Migration of Pieridae (butterflies) through Portachuelo Pass, Rancho Grande, north-central Venezuela. Zoologica 35:189-196.

Beebe, W. 1951. Migration of Nymphalidae (Nymphalinae), Brassolidae, Morphidae, Libytheidae, Satyridae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae (Butterflies) through Portachuelo Pass, Rancho Grande, north-central Venezuela. Zoologica  36:1-16.

Beerwinkle, K.R.,  J.D. Lopez Jr, P.G. Schleider & P.D. Lingren. 1995. Annual patterns of aerial insect densities at altitudes from 500 to 2400 meters in east-central Texas indicated by continuously-operating vertically-oriented radar. Southwestern Entomologist Supplement (18):63-79.

Beerwinkle, K.R., J.D. Lopez, J.A. Witz, P.G. Schleider, R.S. Eyster & P.D. Lingren. 1994. Seasonal Radar and Meteorological Observations Associated with Nocturnal Insect Flight at Altitudes to 900 Meters. Environmental Entomology 23(3):676-683.

Bowden, J. & Johnson, C.G. 1976.  Migrating and other terrestrial insects at sea. Pp. 97-117 in: Cheng, L., editor. Marine Insects. North Holland, Amsterdam. 581 pp. 

Brower, L.P. 1995. Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857-1995. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49:304-385.

Brower, L.P. 1996. Monarch butterfly orientation: missing pieces of a magnificent puzzle. Journal of Experimental Biology 199:93-103.

Brown, C.E. 1965. Mass transport of forest tent caterpillar moths, Malacosoma disstria Hubner, by a cold front. Canadian Entomologist 97:1073-1075.

Bunce, R.G.H. & Howard, D.C., editors. 1990. Species Dispersal in Agricultural Habitats. Belhaven Press (a division of Pinter Publishers), in association with the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, London. 288 pp.

Corbet, P.S. 1963. Migration of Odonata. Proceedings of the N. C. Br., Entomological Society of America 18:108.

Corbet, P.S. 1999. Dragonflies: Behavior and Ecology of Odonata. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 829 pp.

Danthanarayana, W., editor. 1986. Insect flight: dispersal and migration. Springer-Verlag, New York. 289 pp.

DeVries, P.J. & R. Dudley. 1990. Morphometrics, airspeed, thermoregulation, and lipid reserves of migrating Urania fulgens (Uraniidae) moths in natural free flight. Physiological Zoology 63:235-251.

Dickison, R.B.B., M.J. Haggis & R.C. Rainey. 1983. Spruce budworm moth flight and storms: case study of a cold front system. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 22:278-286.

Dickison, R.B.B., M.J. Haggis, R.C. Rainey & L.M.D. Burns. 1986. Spruce budworm moth flight and storms: Further studies using aircraft and radar. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 25:1600-1608.

Dingle, H. 1972. Migration strategies of insects. Science 174:1327-1335.

Dingle, H., editor. 1978. Evolution of insect migration and diapause. Springer-Verlag, New York. 284 pp.

Dingle, H. 1978. Migration and diapause in tropical, temperate, and island milkweed bugs. Pp. 254-276 in: H. Dingle, editor. Evolution of insect migration and diapause. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Dingle, H. 1979. Adaptive variation in the evolution of insect migration. Pp. 64-87 in: R.L. Rabb & G.G. Kennedy, editors. Movement of Highly Mobile Insects. Concepts and Methodology in Research.

Dingle, H. 1996. Migration: the Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press. New York, 474 pp.

Dixon, A.F.G. 1971. Migration in aphids. Sci., Prog., Oxf 59: 41-53.

Dixon, A.F.G., M. Delisle Burns & S. Wangboonkong. 1968. Migration in aphids: response to current adversity. Nature 220:1337-1338.

Dixon, A.F.G., S. Horth, & P. Kindlmann. 1993. Migration in insects? cost and strategies. Journal of Animal Ecology 62:182-190.

Dixon, A.F.G. & M.T. Howard. 1986. Dispersal in aphids, a problem in resource allocation. Pp. 145-151. in: Danthanarayana, W., editor. 1986. Insect flight: dispersal and migration. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Donnelly, T.W. 1999. Migration of dragonflies - a moving topic in 1999. Argia 11(3):17.

Drake, V.A. 1985. Radar observations of moths migrating in a nocturnal low-level jet. Ecological Entomology 10:259-265.

Drake, V.A. 1995. Insect Migration: Tracking Resources Through Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. xviii + 478 pp.

Drake, V.A. & R.A. Farrow. 1988. The influence of atmospheric structure and motions on insect migration. Annual Review of Entomology 33:183-210.

Dunkle, S.W. 1989. Dragonflies of the Florida peninsula, Bermuda, and the Bahamas. Scientific Publishers, Nature Guide No. 1, Gainesville, FL.

Dudley, R. 2000. The Biomechanics of Insect Flight: Form, Function, Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 476 pp.

Dudley, R., R.B. Srygley, E.G. Oliveira, & P.J. DeVries. 2002. Flight speeds, lipid reserves, and predation of the migratory Neotropical moth Urania fulgens (Uraniidae). Biotropica 34:452-458.

Edwards, G.B., & D.B. Richman. 1977. Flight heights of migrating butterflies. Florida Entomologist 60:30.

Einem, G.E. 2003. Fall migration of Queens, Danaus gilippus strigosus Bates, in Mexico and Texas. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 45(2):39, 47.

Emmel, T.C. & R.A. Wobus, 1966. A southward migration of Vanessa cardui in late summer and fall, 1965. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 20:123-124.

Engelhardt, G.P. 1934. Tornados and butterfly migrations in Texas. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29:16.

Gilbert, L.E. 1985. Ecological factors which influence migratory behavior in two butterflies of the semi-arid shrublands of South Texas. Pp. 724-747 in: Rankin, M.A. editors. Migration: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance. University of Texas, Port Aransas.

Glick, R.A. 1965. Review of collections of Lepidoptera by airplane. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 19(3):129-137.

Goldsworthy, G.J. & Wheeler, C.H., editors. 1989. Insect Flight. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 371 pp.

Hardie, J. 1993: Flight Behavior in Migrating Insects. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 10(4):239-245.

Heitzman, J.R. 1970. A new U.S. butterfly record and a migration of Eunica monima in Texas. Mid-Continental Lepidoptera Series 12:10-11.

Hendrix, W.H., III, & W.B. Showers. 1992. Tracing black cutworm and armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) northward migration using Pithecellobium and Calliandra pollen. Environmental Entomology 21:1092-1096.

Henson, W.R. 1951. Mass flights of the spruce budworm. Canadian Entomologist 83:240.

Holt, J., & J. Colvin. 1997. A differential equation model of the interaction between the migration of the Senegalese grasshopper, Oedaleus senegalensis, its predators and a seasonal habitat. Ecological Modelling 101:185-193.

Howe, W.H. 1995. Mass flight of the Hackberry Empress, Asterocampa celtis, Apaturidae, in Kansas. News of the Lepidopterists' Society (1):11.

Johnson, C.G. 1963. The aerial migration of insects. Pp. 188-194. in: Eisner, T. & E.O. Wilson, editors. The insects. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.

Johnson, C.G. 1969. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen, London. 763 pp. 

Kendall, R.O. 1978. Periodic occurrence on Urania fulgens (Uraniidae) in the United States Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 32(4):307-309.

Koehler, C.S. 1965. Migration of the dragonfly, Tarnetrum corruptum (Hagen). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 41(1):66-67.

Lambremont, E.N. 1968. Mass one-directional flight of cloudless sulfurs (Pieridae) in Alabama and Mississippi. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 22:182.

Lenczewski, B., 1992. Butterfly Migration Through the Florida Peninsula. Ph.D thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Lidicker, W.Z. & R.L. Caldwell, editors. 1982 Dispersal and Migration (Benchmark Papers in Ecology 11). Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 311 pp.

Lingren, P.D., J.K. Westbrook, V.M. Bryant, J.R. Raulston, J.F. Esquivel & G.D. Jones. 1994. Origin of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Migrants as Determined by Citrus Pollen Markers and Synoptic Weather Systems. Environmental Entomology 23(3):562-570.

MacKenzie, D.R., Barfield, C.S., Kennedy, G.G., Berger, R.D., & Taranto, D.J. editors. 1985 The Movement and Dispersal of Agriculturally Important Biotic Agents. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 611 pp.

Macy, R.W. 1949. On a migration of Tarnetrum corruptum (Hagen) (Odonata) in Western Oregon. Canadian Entomologist 81:50-51.

May, M.L. 1992. Migrating dragonflies in North America. Argia 4(2):4-8.

May, M.L. 1998. Another migration report, for those of you who came in late. Argia 10(1):10-12

McAnelly, M.L. & M.A. Rankin. 1986a. Migration in the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fab.) I. The capacity for flight in non-swarming populations. Biological Bulletin 170: 368-377.

McAnelly, M.L. & M.A. Rankin. 1986b. Migration in the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fab.) II. Interactions between flight and reproduction. Biological Bulletin 170: 378-392.

Meerman, J.C. & T. Boomsma. 1997. Urania fulgens and other Lepidoptera migrations in Belize, Central America. News of the Lepidopterists’ Society 39(1):8-9.

Mitchell, E.R. 1979. Migration by Spodoptera exigua and S. frugiperda, North America style, Pp. 386-393. in: Rabb, L.R. & G.G. Kennedy, editors. Movement of highly mobile insects: Concepts and methodology research. North Carolina State University.

Muller, R.A. 1979. Synoptic weather types along the central Gulf Coast: Variability and predictability. Pp. 133-146. in: Rabb, R.L. & G.G. Kennedy, editors. Movement of highly mobile insects: Concepts and methodology in research. Proceedings of a Confernce, "Movement of Selected Species of Lepidoptera in the Southeastern United State," Raleigh, NC.

Needham, J.G. & M.J. Westfall. 1955. Dragonflies of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 615 pp.

Nielsen, E.T. 1961. On the habits of the migratory butterfly Ascia monuste L. Biologiske Meddelelser Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab 23:1-81.

Nisbet, I.C.T. 1960. Notes on the migration of dragonflies in southern Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 74:150-153.

Oliveira, E.G., R.B. Srygley, & R. Dudley. 1998. Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass? Journal of Experimental Biology 201:3317-3331.

Opler, P.A. 1971. Mass movement of Tarnetrum corruptum (Odonata : Libellulidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47(3): 223.

Orr, R. 1998. Anax junius 1998 spring migration data from Maryland's PWRC. Argia 10(4):7-8.

Pair,S.D., J.R. Raulston, D.R. Rummel, J.K. Westbrook, W.W. Wolf, A.N. Sparks & M.F. Schuster. 1987. Development and production of corn earworm and fall armyworm in the Texas high plains: evidence for reverse fall migration. The Southwestern Entomologist 12:89-99.

Pedgley, D.E. 1982. Windborne pests and diseases: meteorology of airborne organisms. Halstead Press, New York. 250 pp.

Rainey, R.C. editor. 1976 Insect Flight. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. 287 pp.

Rainey, R.C. 1989. Migration and meteorology, flight behavior and the atmospheric environment of locusts and other migrant pests. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 314 pp.

Rainey, R.C., Browning, K.A., Cheke, R.A., & Haggis, M.J., editors. 1990. Migrant Pests: Progress, Problems and Potentialities. The Royal Society, London. 237 pp.

Rankin, S.M. & M.A. Rankin. 1980. The hormonal control of migratory flight behavior in the convergent ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens. Physiological Entomology 5:175-182.

Rankin, M.A. & S.M. Rankin. 1980. Some factors affecting flight activity of the convergent ladybeetle, Hippodamia convergens. Biological Bulletin 158:356-369.

Rabb, R.L. & G.G. Kennedy. editors. 1979. Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research. University Graphics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 456 pp.

Riley, C.V. 1877. The locust plague in the United States. Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago. 236 pp.

Ross, G.N. 1994. Butterflies Descend on Offshore Rigs. Louisiana Environmentalist.

Russell,. R.W., M.L. May, K.L. Soltesz & J.W. Fitzpatrick. 1998. Massive swarm migrations of dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern North America. American Midland Naturalist 140:325-342.

Russell, R.W. 1999. Migration Over the Gulf. Louisiana Museum of Natural Science. 

Sala, F.P. 1959. Possible migration tendencies of Erebus odora and other similar species. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13:65-66.

Sappington, T.W., &  W.B. Showers. 1993. Influence of Larval Starvation and Adult Diet on Long-Distance Flight Behavior of the Migratory Moth Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology 22(1): 141-148.

Shannon, H.J. 1916. Insect migration as related to those of birds. Scientific Monthly 3: 227-240.

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1975. Migration and homing in animals. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Scott, J.A. 1992. Direction of spring migration of Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae) in Colorado. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 31(1-2): 16-23.

Soltesz, K., B. Barber & G. Carpenter. 1995. A spring dragonfly migration in the Northeast. Argia 7(3): 10-14.  

Southwood, T.R.E. 1962. Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biological Reviews 37: 171-214.

Southwood, T.R.E. 1981. Ecological aspects of insect migration. Pp. 196-208 in: D.J. Aidley editor. Animal Migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sparks, A.N., editor. 1986. Long-range Migration of Moths of Agronomic Importance to the United States and Canada: Specific Examples of Occurrence and Synoptic Weather Patterns Conducive to Migration. ARS-43 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC. 104 pp.

Sparks, A.N., R.D. Jackson, J.E. Carpenter & R.A. Muller. 1986. Insects captured in light traps in the Gulf of Mexico. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79: 132-139.

Sprandel, G. 2001. Fall dragonfly (Odonata) and butterfly (Lepidoptera) migration at St. Joseph peninsula, Gulf County, Florida. Florida Entomologist 84(2): 234-238.

Sprandel, G. 2002. Florida migration tales. Argia 13(4): 11-12.

Srygley, R.B. 2001a. Compensation for fluctuations in crosswind drift without stationary landmarks in butterflies migrating over seas. Animal Behaviour 61: 191-203.

Srygley, R.B. 2001b. Sexual differences in tailwind drift compensation in Phoebis sennae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) migrating over seas. Behavioral Ecology 12: 607-611.

Srygley, R.B. & E.G. Oliveira. 2001. Sun compass and wind drift compensation in migrating butterflies. Journal of Navigation 54:405-417.

Srygley, R.B., E.G. Oliveira & R. Dudley. 1996. Wind drift compensation, flyways, and conservation of diurnal, migrant Neotropical Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:1351-1357.

Taylor, L.R. 1986. The four kinds of migration. Pp.265-280. in: W. Danthanarayan, editor. Insect flight: dispersal and migration. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Taylor, L.R. & Taylor, R.A. J. 1983. Insect migration as a paradigm for survival by movement. Pp. 181-214 in: I.R. Swingland & P.J. Greenwood editors. The Ecology of Insect Movement. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Taylor, R.A.J., & D. Reling. 1986. Preferred wind direction of long distance leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) migrants and its relevance to the return migration of small insects. Journal of Animal Ecology 55: 1103-1114.

Torrey, B. 1880. Migration of Dragon Flies. American Naturalist 14: 132-133.

Trottier, R. 1966. The emergence and sex ratio of Anax junius Drury (Odonata:Aeshnidae) in Canada. Canadian Entomologist 98: 794-798.

Trottier, R. 1971. Effect of temperature on the life cycle of Anax junius (Odonata:Aeshnidae) in Canada. Canadian Entomologist 103: 1671-1687.

Tunmore, M. 2000. The 1999 Monarch Danaus plexippus (Linn.) Influx into the British Isles. Atropos 9: 4-16.

Urquhart, F.A. & N.R. Urquhart. 1977. Overwintering areas and migratory routes of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America, with special reference to the western population. Canadian Entomology 109:1583-1589.

Walker, T.J. 1978. Migration and re-migration of butterflies through north peninsular Florida: Quantification with Malaise traps. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 32(3): 178-190.

Walker, T.J. 1980. Migrating Lepidoptera: are butterflies better than moths? Pp. 79-98 in: Insect Behavioral Ecology Symposium, '79. Florida Entomology 63: 1-111.

Walker, T.J. 1985. Permanent traps for monitoring butterfly migration: tests in Florida, 1979-84. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 39(4): 313-320.

Walker, T.J. 2001. Butterfly migrations in Florida: Seasonal patterns and long-term changes. Environmental Entomology 30(6):1052-1060.

Walker, T.J., & B. Lenczewski. 1989. An inexpensive portable trap for monitoring butterfly migrations. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 43(4): 289-298.

Walker, T.J., & R.C. Littell. 1994. Orientation of fall migrating butterflies in north peninsular Florida and source areas. Ethology 98:60-84.

Walker, T.J., & J.J. Whitesell. 1993. A superior trap for migrating butterflies. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 47(2): 140-149.

Welling, E.C. 1959. Notes on butterfly migrations in the peninsula of Yucatán. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13(2): 62-64.

Welling, E.C. 1964. Butterfly migrations in southeastern Mexico during 1963 and 1964. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 18(4):229-230.

Welling, E.C. 1973. A massive migration of Kricogonia (Pieridae) in Campeche, Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 27(2):154-155.

Whitehead, D.R. & A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 1990. What is an immigrant arthropod? Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83:9-14.

Williams, C.B. 1930. The migration of butterflies. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 473 pp.

Williams, C.B. 1958. Insect migration. Collins, London. 235 pp.

Williams, C.B. 1970. The migrations on the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae), with special reference to North America. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 24:157-175.

Woiwod, I.P., Reynolds, D.R., & Thomas, C.D., editors. 2001. Insect Movement: Mechanisms and Consequences. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 458 pp.

Wolf, W.W., Sparks, A.N., Pair, S.D., Westbrook, J.K., Truesdale, F.M. 1986. Radar observations and collections of insects in the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 221-234 in: Danthanarayana, W. editor. Insect flight: dispersal and migration. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 

Wolf, W.W., J.K. Westbrook & A.N. Sparks. 1986. Relationship between radar entomological measurements and atmospheric structure in south Texas during March and April 1982. Pp. 84-97 in: Sparks, A.N., editor. Long-range migration of moths of agronomic importance to the United States and Canada: specific examples of occurrence and synoptic weather patterns conducive to migration. ARS-43. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC. 104 pp.

Young, A.M. 1970. Notes on a migration of Urania fulgens (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae) in Costa Rica. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 78:60-70.


02 April 2014 © Mike Quinn / entomike@gmail.com / Texas Entomology