Texas Beetle Resources


An annotated list of
Lady Beetles ("Ladybugs") of Texas
and surrounding states of NM, OK, AR, LA

Family Coccinellidae

~140 species of coccinellids have been recorded from Texas
Over 100 species are illustrated here

Speciemens photographed from the following collections: EGRC, SNMNH, TAMUIC, USNM and UTIC
Thumbnails link to larger photo on BugGuide.Net. Click on "Info" tab for more information.


Genus Cephaloscymnus

Cephaloscymnus sp. - Cephaloscymnus occidentalis
     Cephaloscymnus occidentalis Horn - "Horn's Large-headed Lady" - southmost Texas, AZ to s. CA

     Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni australis Gordon - "Zimmermann's Large-headed Lady" - central TX to AZ
     Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni Crotch - e. US to se AZ

Genus Delphastus  

Delphastus pusilla (LeConte) - Delphastus pusillus Delphastus pusilla (LeConte)  - Delphastus pusillus Delphastus pusilla (LeConte)  - Delphastus pusillus
     Delphastus pusillus (LeConte) - "Whitefly Predator" - e. US

Genus Gnathoweisea

Gnathoweisea sp., prob. texana Gordon - Gnathoweisea texana
     Gnathoweisea texana Gordon - "Bell Lady" - common on Juniper in May in central Texas

Genus Microweisea

Microweisea sp. - Microweisea
     Microweisea sp.

     Microweisea minuta (Casey) - "Minute Lady" - central to south Texas

    
Microweisea misella (LeConte) - "Micro Lady" - e. TX, N. Amer. to Pacific NW

Genus Zilus

          Zilus horni Smallest Ladybird - Zilus horni Smallest Ladybird - Zilus horni
               Zilus horni Gordon -

Genus Zagloba 

          Zagloba hystrix Casey - Zagloba hystrix
             Zagloba hystrix Casey - "Porcupine Lady" - c. to s. Texas

             Zagloba satana Gordon - "Devil Lady" - Devils River to Laredo, TX

Genus Stethorus 

Stethorus
     Stethorus sp.

     Stethorus caseyi Gordon & Chapin - central to south Texas, west to AZ and s. UT.

     Stethorus histrio Chazeau - Non-Native species found at two sites in the Texas Panhandle, Amarillo and near Hart. This is an Old World sp. that's also present in Chile and Mexico.

     Stethorus nigripes Kapur - Non-Native species common in the TX Panhandle and western OK and KS. Native to Australia.

     Stethorus pinachi Gordon & Chapin - "Carrizo Lady" - only known from type locality, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Texas

Beetle - Stethorus punctum Beetle - Stethorus punctum
     Stethorus punctum (LeConte) - "Spider Mite Destroyer" - northern Great Plalins to OK and east to the Atlantic coast as well as along the west coast.

     Stethorus utilis (Horn) - "Useful Lady" - Brownsville to FL and NC.

Genus Nephaspis 

          Dusky Lady Beetle - Nephaspis oculatus Nephaspis oculatus (Blatchley) - Nephaspis oculatus Nephaspis oculatus (Blatchley) - Nephaspis oculatus
                 Nephaspis oculatus (Blatchley) - "Eyed Lady" - mostly southmost TX to FL and scattered e. US records. Native to C. Amer.

Genus Cryptolaemus

          Mealybug Destoryer - Cryptolaemus montrouzieri - male Lady beetle - Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
                Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant - "Mealybug Destroyer" - Non-Native - First reported in TX from Beaumont in 1933, mostly occurs in CA, but scattered records to FL, ME and WI

Genus Didion

          Histerid? - Didion punctatum Unknown  - Didion punctatum
                 Didion punctatum
 (Melsheimer) - "Twice-stained Lady" - widely dist. across N. Amer.

Genus Scymnus

          Scymnus sp. - Scymnus
               Scymnus 
sp.

     Scymnus (Pullus) ardelio Horn - "Wet Lady" - Trans-Pecos, w. US

     Scymnus (Pullus) aridus Casey - "Dry Lady" - El Paso, w. US

Scymnus brullei
     Scymnus (Pullus) brullei Mulsant - "Brullé Lady" - Brownsville, e. N. Amer.

Scymnus caudalis
     Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte - "Caudal Lady" - Two TX records, Brownsville and Dallas, plus scattered e. N. Amer. records to Manatoba.

Scymnus cervicalis Mulsant  - Scymnus cervicalis Scymnus cervicalis Mulsant - Scymnus cervicalis
     Scymnus (Pullus) cervicalis Mulsant - "Orange-neck Lady" - Brownsville to central TX to KS, e. US, plus scattered records to s. CA

     Scymnus (Pullus) cockerelli Casey - "Cockerell Lady" - El Paso, sw US

Scymnus compar
     Scymnus (Pullus) compar Casey - "Incomparable Lady" - c. TX, e. N. Amer.

          Scymnus creperus Mulsant - Scymnus creperus Scymnus creperus Mulsant - Scymnus creperus
               Scymnus (Pullus) creperus Mulsant - "Uncertain Lady" - Throughout TX, Gaines (1933) reports this sp. as common from April to November, se US to NM

Scymnus enochrus Gordon - Scymnus enochrus
     Scymnus (Pullus) enochrus Gordon  - "Golden Lady" - Trans-Pecos, c. AZ

Scymnus fraternus
     Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus LeConte - "Friendly Lady" - one historical record from College Station, TX, scattered Great Plains records, e. US

     Scymnus (Pullus) horni Gorham - "Horn Lady" - Hidalgo Co. to central TX to CA

     Scymnus (Pullus) howdeni Gordon - "Howden Lady" - Big Bend National Park

 Scymnus kansanus? - Scymnus kansanus  Scymnus kansanus? - Scymnus kansanus
     Scymnus (Pullus) kansanus Casey - "Kansas Lady" - Houston, e. N. Amer.

Scymnus (Pullus) loewii Mulsant - Scymnus loewii Scymnus loewii Mulsant - Scymnus loewii 
     Scymnus (Pullus) loewii Mulsant - "Dusky Lady" - Common from sc US to s. CA with scattered se US record, south to S. Amer.

Scymnus louisianae J. Chapin - Scymnus louisianae Scymnus louisianae J. Chapin - Scymnus louisianae
     Scymnus (Pullus) louisianae J. Chapin - "Louisiana Lady" -  Trans-Pecos to RGV to nc TX to LA, plus limited, scattered s. US records

     Scymnus (Pullus) nemorivagus Wingo - "Woodland Lady" - OK, AR, MO, and SC records, but not known from TX

Scymnus pacificus Crotch - Scymnus pacificus Scymnus pacificus Crotch - Scymnus pacificus
     Scymnus (Pullus) pacificus Crotch - "Pacific Lady" - Trans-Pecos, sw US

     Scymnus (Pullus) pallens LeConte - "Leathery Lady" - Trans-Pecos, sw US to OR

     Scymnus (Pullus) pauculus Gordon - "Big Bend Lady" - Big Bend National Park, c. AZ (Oracle)

     Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis LeConte - Present in LA and e. US, but no known TX records.

flood debris #9 - Scymnus rubricaudus flood debris #9 - Scymnus rubricaudus
     Scymnus (Pullus) rubricaudus Casey - "Red-tailed Lady" - Corpus Christi to Dallas, e. US

     Scymnus (Pullus) secures J. Chapin - "Axe Lady" - Just east of the TX-LA border along the Gulf coast to FL (where it's widely dist.) and from MD to MA along the Atlantic coast.No known TX records.

Gordon's Figures    
     Scymnus (Pullus) semiruber
 Horn - "Vested Lady" - No TX records, but 13 reported from Latimer Co., OK. most of the remaining records are closer to the Atlantic coast.

Scymnus socer - female
     Scymnus (Pullus) socer LeConte - "Soccer Lady" - central TX to NJ

beetle - Scymnus tenebrosus - male
     Scymnus (Pullus) tenebrosus Mulsant - "Darkling Lady" - College Station to e. N. Amer.

     Scymnus (Pullus) uncus Wingo - "Hooked Lady" - central TX to MS, MO, OK, plus a few New England records.

Scymnus americanus
     Scymnus (Scymnus) americanus Mulsant - "American Lady" - three historical records from College Station, most records n. and e. of GA to MN

Scymnus apicanus
     Scymnus (Scymnus) apicanus J. Chapin - "Apicanus Lady" - one record from Del Rio area, e. US to Alberta

Scymnus circumspectus Horn - Scymnus circumspectus Scymnus circumspectus Horn - Scymnus circumspectus
     Scymnus (Scymnus) circumspectus Horn - "Circumspect Lady" - one record near Palestine, TX, e. to AL, n. to MO

scymnine - Scymnus indianensis scymnine - Scymnus indianensis
     Scymnus (Scymnus) indianensis Weise - "Indiana Lady" - Houston-FL-NH

     Scymnus (Scymnus) p. paracanus J. Chapin - "Paracanus Lady" - east TX, se US

Genus Nephus 

Nephus flavifrons (Melsheimer) - Nephus flavifrons Nephus flavifrons (Melsheimer) - Nephus flavifrons Nephus flavifrons (Melsheimer) - Nephus flavifrons Nephus flavifrons (Melsheimer) - Nephus flavifrons
     Nephus flavifrons (Melsheimer) - "Tail-spot Lady" - south TX to Dallas, e. US, se AZ

Gordon's Figures
     Nephus guttulatus
(LeConte) - Trans-Pecos, sw US

Nephus intrusus (Horn) - Nephus intrusus
     Nephus intrusus (Horn) - "Intrusive Lady" - south Texas to SD, e. US

     Nephus sordidus (Horn) - "Sordid Lady" - Trans-Pecos, w. N. Amer.

Genus Diomus 

Unknown Beetle - Diomus amabilis Unknown Beetle - Diomus amabilis
     Diomus amabilis (LeConte) - "Amiable Lady" - e. US, one photo record from Houston, TX.

Diomus debilis (LeConte) - Diomus debilis Diomus debilis (LeConte) - Diomus debilis
     Diomus debilis (LeConte) - "Weak Lady" - widely scattered records, but most from southwest.

Diomus liebecki (Horn) - Diomus liebecki
     Diomus liebecki (Horn) - "Liebeck Lady" - Recorded from OK and e. N. Amer., but apparently absent from se. US. No known TX records.

Diomus pseudotaedatus Gordon - Diomus pseudotaedatus Diomus pseudotaedatus Gordon - Diomus pseudotaedatus
     Diomus pseudotaedatus Gordon - "Non-disgusting Lady" - Only known from southmost Texas

Diomus terminatus (Say) - Diomus terminatus Diomus terminatus (Say) - Diomus terminatus Diomus terminatus (Say) - Diomus terminatus Diomus terminates (Say) - Diomus terminatus
     Diomus terminatus (Say) - "Yellow-tip Lady" - Brownsville to Del Rio to Wichita Falls, e. US

     Diomus texanus Gordon - Trans-Pecos

          Diomus xanthaspis (Mulsant) - Diomus xanthaspis
              Diomus xanthaspis (Mulsant) - "Bicolor Lady" - south to central Texas, mostly se US

Genus Selvadius 

Selvadius sp. - Selvadius
     Selvadius sp. - Hidalgo Co., possible new US record

Selvadius nunenmacheri Gordon - Selvadius nunenmacheri
     Selvadius nunenmacheri Gordon - "Nunenmacher Lady" - AZ, OK, CO, and WY, but no known TX records.

     Selvadius rectus Casey - "Straight Lady" - Trans-Pecos to c. CA

Genus Helesius 

Helesius nubilans Casey - Helesius nubilans Helesius nubilans Casey - Helesius nubilans
     Helesius nubilans Casey - "Stormy Lady" - c. to s. TX, known from three spmns, two coll'ed in Brownsville by Wickham ca. 1897 and one in San Antonio in 1945.

Genus Thalassa

Montezuma Lady Beetle - Thalassa montezumae - female Thalassa montezumae Mulsant - Thalassa montezumae - male Large Ladybird Beetle - Thalassa montezumae - male Large Ladybird Beetle - Thalassa montezumae - male
     Thalassa montezumae Mulsant - "Montezuma Lady" -  Houston, Brownsville, se AZ; introduced into FL / Mex. to S. Amer.

Genus Hyperaspis 

    proba group


    Hyperaspis proba (Say) - "The Good Lady" - Trans-Pecos to New Eangland and  SD

Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffer - Hyperaspis weisei Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffer - Hyperaspis weisei Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffer - Hyperaspis weisei
     Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffer - "Weise Lady" - known from two specimens collected in Brownsville.
     (Dobzhansky (1941) considered this to be a subspecies of H. proba, but Gordon (1985) rejected that analysis.)

Hyperaspis globula Casey - Hyperaspis globula Hyperaspis globula Casey - Hyperaspis globula Hyperaspis globula Casey - Hyperaspis globula Hyperaspis globula Casey - Hyperaspis globula
     Hyperaspis globula Casey - "Globular Lady" - southmost Texas

    binotata group

Lady Beetle - Hyperaspis binotata Lady Beetle - Hyperaspis binotata
    Hyperaspis binotata (Say) - "Small-spot Lady" -  Common e. N. Amer. species recorded from LA and OK, but no know TX records.

Hyperaspis inedita Mulsant - Hyperaspis inedita Hyperaspis inedita Mulsant - Hyperaspis inedita
    Hyperaspis inedita Mulsant - "Unedited Lady" - recorded from LA & OK, and scattered se US, but no TX record as yet.

Hyperaspis octonotata Casey - Hyperaspis octonotata Hyperaspis octonotata Casey - Hyperaspis octonotata Hyperaspis octonotata Casey - Hyperaspis octonotata Hyperaspis octonotata Casey - Hyperaspis octonotata
     Hyperaspis octonotata Casey - "Eight-spot Lady" - Trans-Pecos to southmost TX, sw US

    signata group

          Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey - Hyperaspis signata Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey - Hyperaspis signata Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey - Hyperaspis signata Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey - Hyperaspis signata
               Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey - "Bicentral Lady" - c. TX to Houston to OK
               Hyperaspis signata
(Olivier) - e. US

          Lady Beetle - Hyperaspis conviva - male
               Hyperaspis conviva Casey - "Lively Lady" - Reported from OK and LA, but not TX. Occurs across se US, up the Atlantic seaboard, and back across s. Canada.

    bigeminata group

Hyperaspis bigeminata (Randall) - Hyperaspis bigeminata - female Hyperaspis bigeminata (Randall) - Hyperaspis bigeminata - female
     Hyperaspis bigeminata (Randall) - "Bigeminy Lady" - Corpus to Dallas, e. US

Hyperaspis wickhami Casey - Hyperaspis wickhami Hyperaspis wickhami Casey - Hyperaspis wickhami Hyperaspis wickhami Casey - Hyperaspis wickhami Hyperaspis wickhami Casey - Hyperaspis wickhami
     Hyperaspis wickhami Casey - "Wickham Lady" - central to south Texas

Hyperaspis lugubris (Randall) - Hyperaspis lugubris Hyperaspis lugubris (Randall) - Hyperaspis lugubris
     Hyperaspis lugubris (Randall) - "Lugubrius Lady" - Lake Brownwood State Park, most records from Great Plains, and se Rockies

Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis lateralis - female Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis lateralis - female Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis lateralis - female Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis lateralis - female
     Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant - "Lateral Lady" - Trans-Pecos, w. N. Amer. with limited, scattered TX, LA, FL records.

Hyperaspis - Hyperaspis levrati Hyperaspis - Hyperaspis levrati
     Hyperaspis levrati
(Mulsant) - "Levrat Lady" - sw. TX, se AZ, Mex.

Hyperaspis medialis Casey - Hyperaspis medialis Hyperaspis medialis Casey - Hyperaspis medialis Hyperaspis medialis Casey - Hyperaspis medialis
     Hyperaspis medialis Casey - "Medial Lady" - se AZ to s TX

Gordon's Figures
     Hyperaspis triangulum Casey - "Triad Lady" - Trans-Pecos, se AZ

    connectens group

Ladybird Beetle - Hyperaspis connectens - female Hyperaspis connectens? - Hyperaspis connectens Hyperaspis connectens ? - Hyperaspis connectens Hyperaspis connectens? - Hyperaspis connectens Ladybird Beetle - Hyperaspis connectens
     Hyperaspis connectens (Thunberg) - "Connected Lady" - across southern US, south to C. Amer.

Hyperaspis rotunda Casey - Hyperaspis rotunda Hyperaspis rotunda Casey - Hyperaspis rotunda Hyperaspis rotunda Casey - Hyperaspis rotunda Hyperaspis rotunda Casey - Hyperaspis rotunda
     Hyperaspis rotunda Casey - "Rotund Lady" - southmost Texas

    gemma group

Hyperaspis gemma Casey - Hyperaspis gemma Hyperaspis gemma Casey - Hyperaspis gemma Hyperaspis gemma Casey - Hyperaspis gemma Hyperaspis gemma Casey - Hyperaspis gemma
     Hyperaspis gemma Casey - "Lady Bud Beetle" - Trans-Pecos to s. Calif.

hyper - Hyperaspis conspirans hyper - Hyperaspis conspirans hyper - Hyperaspis conspirans
     Hyperaspis conspirans Casey - "Conspired Lady" - Trans-Pecos, AZ

    significans group

Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte - Hyperaspis cruenta Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte - Hyperaspis cruenta Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte - Hyperaspis cruenta
     Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte - "Bloody Lady" - Dallas to NM

    fimbriolata group

Hyperaspis inflexa Casey - Hyperaspis inflexa Hyperaspis inflexa Casey - Hyperaspis inflexa Hyperaspis inflexa Casey - Hyperaspis inflexa Hyperaspis inflexa Casey - Hyperaspis inflexa Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis inflexa Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant  - Hyperaspis inflexa
     Hyperaspis inflexa Casey - "Curvy Lady" - Trans-Pecos, Travis Co., plus scattered records across N. Amer.

Hyperaspis Hyperaspis
     Hyperaspis caseyi Gordon - "Red-lined Lady" - AZ to Dallas to UT

Hyperaspis schaefferi Gordon - Hyperaspis schaefferi Hyperaspis schaefferi Gordon - Hyperaspis schaefferi
     Hyperaspis schaefferi Gordon - "Schaeffer Lady" - Brownsville to Columbus, TX

Hyperaspis bensonica Casey - Hyperaspis bensonica Hyperaspis bensonica Casey - Hyperaspis bensonica Hyperaspis bensonica Casey - Hyperaspis bensonica
     Hyperaspis bensonica Casey - "Benson Lady" - Trans-Pecos to s. CA (Named for Benson, AZ, not Bentsen State Park)

Hyperaspis pleuralis Casey - Hyperaspis pleuralis Hyperaspis pleuralis Casey - Hyperaspis pleuralis
    Hyperaspis pleuralis Casey - "Side-spot Lady" - Brownsville to CA and OR

    undulata group

          Hyperaspis undulata (Say) - Hyperaspis undulata Hyperaspis undulata (Say) - Hyperaspis undulata
                Hyperaspis undulata (Say) - "Wavy Lady" - No TX record, but 13 reported from Latimer Co., mostly occurs across northern US and sw. Canada

    quadrivittata
 group

Hyperaspis punctata LeConte - Hyperaspis punctata Hyperaspis punctata LeConte - Hyperaspis punctata Hyperaspis punctata LeConte - Hyperaspis punctata Hyperaspis punctata LeConte - Hyperaspis punctata
     Hyperaspis punctata
LeConte - "Low Punctate Lady" - Trans-Pecos to c. TX, n. to OK

Hyperaspis imitator Gordon - Hyperaspis imitator Hyperaspis imitator Gordon - Hyperaspis imitator Hyperaspis imitator Gordon - Hyperaspis imitator Hyperaspis imitator Gordon - Hyperaspis imitator
     Hyperaspis imitator Gordon - "Imitation Lady" - known from 2 spmns coll'ed in c. TX: Becar Co. in 1947 and Uvalde Co. in 1986.

    Hyperaspis species not assigned to groups

Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer - Hyperaspis trifurcata Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer - Hyperaspis trifurcata Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer - Hyperaspis trifurcata Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer - Hyperaspis trifurcata
     Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer - "Forked Lady" - common from c. to s. TX, plus a few western records

Hyperaspis - female Hyperaspis - female Hyperaspis - female
     Hyperaspis sp. - "Pink Lady" - southmost TX (Santa Ana NWR) - New US Record

Genus Hyperaspidius

Hyperaspidius Hyperaspidius Hyperaspidius Hyperaspidius Hyperaspidius Hyperaspidius - female
    Hyperaspidius spp.

Hyperaspidius nanellus Gordon - Hyperaspidius nanellus
    Hyperaspidius nanellus Gordon - "Pale Dwarf Lady" - southmost TX to OK

Gordon's Figures
    Hyperaspidius marginatus (Gaines) - "Marginal Lady" - Welder Wildlife Refuge, Sinton to just north of College Station, TX. Type Locality: College Station.

Hyperaspidius oblongus Casey - Hyperaspidius oblongus
    Hyperaspidius oblongus Casey - "Oblong Lady" - El Paso, Houston, Corpus Christi

Hyperaspidius vittigerus
     Hyperaspidius vittigerus (LeConte) - "Vittate Lady" - se NM to Alberta where it's the most common member of the genus. Three historical records from College Station that need confirmation.

Genus Brachiacantha - live underground where they prey on scale insects found in ant nests

Brachiacantha barberi Gordon - Brachiacantha barberi Brachiacantha barberi Gordon - Brachiacantha barberi Brachiacantha barberi Gordon - Brachiacantha barberi
    Brachiacantha barberi
Gordon - "Barber Lady" - central to south Texas

Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - Brachiacantha bollii - female Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - Brachiacantha bollii - female Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - Brachiacantha bollii - female Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - Brachiacantha bollii Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - Brachiacantha bollii 
     Brachiacantha bollii Crotch - "Boll Lady" - central TX to w. LA, plus Latimer Co., OK

Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - Brachiacantha decempustulata Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - Brachiacantha decempustulata Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - Brachiacantha decempustulata Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - Brachiacantha decempustulata Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - Brachiacantha decempustulata
     Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer) - "Ten-spot Lady" - Recorded from LA and OK, but no known Texas records. e. N. Amer.

Brachiacantha decora Casey - Brachiacantha decora
     Brachiacantha decora Casey - "Decorated Lady" - across southern half of TX, AZ, s. FL / Mex. to S. Amer.

Brachiacantha dentipes (Fabricius) - Brachiacantha dentipes Brachiacantha dentipes (Fabricius) - Brachiacantha dentipes Brachiacantha dentipes (Fabricius) - Brachiacantha dentipes
     Brachiacantha dentipes (Fabricius) - "Carolina Lady" - Records from NM, OK, AR, and LA, plus one historical record from e. TX. Widely dist. across e. US.

Brachiacantha - Brachiacantha felina Brachiacantha ursina? - Brachiacantha felina
     Brachiacantha felina (Fabricius) - "Cat Lady" - Recorded from e. TX, LA, AR and e. US, but absent from southern Atlantic coast.

Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum
Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - Brachiacantha quadrillum
     Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte - "Four-spot Lady" - Red River to Rio Grande

Brachiacantha subfasciata Mulsant - Brachiacantha subfasciata - female
     Brachiacantha subfasciata Mulsant - "Semi-banded Lady" - central to south TX, se AZ

Back and orange
 beetle - Brachiacantha tau Back and orange
 beetle - Brachiacantha tau
     Brachiacantha tau LeConte - "T-mark Lady" - Trans-Pecos, Rocky Mtns.

Brachiacantha testudo Casey - Brachiacantha testudo Brachiacantha testudo Casey - Brachiacantha testudo
     Brachiacantha testudo Casey - "Turtle Lady" - central to south TX. Also recorded from Arkansas per Rouse and Chapin (1976)


Subfamily Chilocorinae

       Genus Brumoides

           Brumoides septentrionis hogei (Gorham) - Brumoides septentrionis
                Brumoides septentrionis hogei (Gorham) - "Hoge Lady" Trans-Pecos, sw US
                Brumoides septentrionis (Weise) - "Winter Lady" - widely dist., (but absent from se US), rarely encountered

       Genus Axion

Coccinellid - Axion plagiatum Axion plagiatum var. texanum - Axion plagiatum Axion plagiatum var. texanum - Axion plagiatum Coccinellid - Axion plagiatum Beetle larva - Axion plagiatum 
     Axion plagiatum (Olivier) - "Spot-sided Lady" - uncommon across TX to Caddo Parish, LA, w. to CA and OR.

Three-spotted Lady Beetle - Axion tripustulatum Black Ladybug? - Axion tripustulatum Axion tripustulatum
     Axion tripustulatum (DeGeer) - "Pimple Lady" - east TX, e US

Genus Exochomus 

Exochomus childreni Mulsant  - Exochomus childreni - male Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte - Exochomus childreni Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte - Exochomus childreni Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte - Exochomus childreni Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte - Exochomus childreni Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte  - Exochomus childreni
     Exochomus childreni guexi LeConte - "Guex Lady" - central TX to LA, and south
     Exochomus childreni childreni Mulsant - Florida

Beetle - Exochomus marginipennis
     Exochomus marginipennis (J. E. LeConte) - "Children-esque Lady" - e. TX, e. US (some confusion exists in differentiating this sp. from childreni)

Dark Lady Beetle with 2 orange spots and rim around edges - Exochomus subrotundus blackish Lady Beetle with reddish markings on Goosefoot - Exochomus subrotundus Dark Lady Beetle with 2 orange spots and rim around edges - Exochomus subrotundus Dark Lady Beetle with 2 orange spots and rim around edges - Exochomus subrotundus
     Exochomus subrotundus Casey - "Semi-rotund Lady" - Trans-Pecos, sw US

Genus Chilocorus

Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) - Chilocorus cacti Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) - Chilocorus cacti Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) - Chilocorus cacti Adults, larvae and pupae on tamarisk - Chilocorus cacti
     Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) - "Cactus Lady" - widely dist. across s. US

Twice-stabbed ladybird - Chilocorus stigma Twice-stabbed lady beetle - Chilocorus stigma Chilocorus stigma (Say) - Chilocorus stigma
     Chilocorus stigma (Say) - "Twice-stabbed Lady" - most of N. Amer., (except w. coast)


     Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhall) - "Red Chilocorus" - Non-Native species present in Nuevo Leon, Mexico and Florida, but no Texas records.

Genus Rhyzobius

Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) - Rhyzobius lophanthae Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) - Rhyzobius lophanthae Rhyzobius lophanthae maybe - Rhyzobius lophanthae

                Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) - "Purlple Scale Predator" - Non-Native - se US to CA

Genus Rodolia 

Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) - Rodolia cardinalis Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) - Rodolia cardinalis Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) - Rodolia cardinalis Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) - Rodolia cardinalis Vedalia Lady Beetle - Rodolia cardinalis Vedalia Beetle Larvae - Rodolia cardinalis
     Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) - "Vedalia Beetle" - Non-Native - se US, CA

Genus Anovia

          Gordon's Figures
               Anovia virginalis (Wickham) - "Virgin Lady" - s. TX to AZ, UT

Genus Azya

         
                Azya orbigera Mulsant - "Orb Lady" - Native from ne Mexico to s. Amer. No Texas records. Introduced into Florida


Subfamily Coccinellinae

       Genus Paranaemia

          Coccinelidae - Paranaemia vittigera Striped and Spotted Lady Beetles - Paranaemia vittigera
                Paranaemia vittigera (Mannerheim) - "Striped Lady" - Trans-Pecos, w. N. Amer.

Genus Naemia 

Naemia seriata (Melsheimer) - Naemia seriata Ladybeetle - Naemia seriata Lady Beetle - Naemia seriata coccinellid larva - Naemia seriata
     Naemia seriata (Melsheimer) - "Seaside Lady" - Atlantic Coast from Brownsville, TX to New Brunswick. Feeds on both insects and pollen.

Genus Coleomegilla 

Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer) - Coleomegilla maculata BG2558 E1670 - Coleomegilla maculata BG2558 E1670 - Coleomegilla maculata Ladybeetle larva - Coleomegilla maculata
     Coleomegilla maculata (Degeer) - "Pink Spotted Lady" - e. TX, RGV, e.US to CA.
     Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake - e. US
     Coleomegilla maculata strenua (Casey) - along the sw border

Genus Hippodamia 

Convergent Ladybird Beetle for California in April - 
Hippodamia convergens convergent
 lady beetle? - Hippodamia convergens Convergent 
Lady Beetle - Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetle 
Larva ? - Hippodamia convergens Ladybird 
bettle swarm - Hippodamia convergens
     Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville - "Convergent Lady" - throughout US and sw Canada. May be abundant in or near argo-ecosystems.

Hippodamia parenthis? - Hippodamia parenthesis Hippodamia parenthesis Parenthesis Lady Beetle - Hippodamia parenthesis Lady Beetle ID? - Hippodamia parenthesis
     Hippodamia parenthesis (Say) - "Parenthesis Lady" - Recorded from NM and AR, no TX records as yet.

Gordon's Figures
     Hippodamia quindecimmaculata Mulsant - LA, AR, NE, CO, but most records in the Upper Mid-West. No confirmed Texas records.

Gordon's Figures
     Hippodamia quinquesignata (Kirby) - "Five-spot Lady" - NM plus one report from Latimer Co., OK. Most records from w. N. Amer., with scatterd e. N. Amer. records. No confirmed TX records.

Hippodamia sinuata crotchi Casey - Hippodamia sinuata Different Lady Beetle - Hippodamia sinuata Convergent Lady ? - Hippodamia sinuata
    Hippodamia sinuata crotchi Casey - "Sinuate Lady" - Trans-Pecos, western N. Amer., but abscent from w. coast.

Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus) - Hippodamia tredecimpunctata
     Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus) - "Thirteen-spot Lady" - no TX records, but Karl Stephan recorded 2 spmns from Latimer Co., OK and Chapin (1974) recorded in from three counties in AR. Ranges across n. US and Canada.

Genus Adalia

Lady Beetle - Adalia bipunctata
      Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) - "Two-spot Lady" - fairly common in New Mexico, recorded in OK, AR and LA, but no TX records that I know of.

Genus Coccinella

Coccinella monticola Tamarack Lady Beetle, diagonal view - Coccinella monticola
     Coccinella monticola (Mulsant) - "Mountain Lady" - formerly common in NM. No TX records.

Coccinella novemnotata Herbst - Coccinella novemnotata Nearly unspotted Nine-spotted - Coccinella novemnotata
     Coccinella novemnotata Herbst - "Nine-spot Lady" - Apparently never common in Texas, most recently collect in 1978 in Huntsville per specimens in the TAMUIC. Historical records from Amarillo and Dallas.
     Dr. Chapin (1974) reported examining 83 specimens from 34 parishes in Louisiana. Current range limited to w. N. Amer., upper midwest, and coastal New England

  Seven-spotted Lady Beetle larva - Coccinella septempunctata
     Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus - "Seven-spot Lady" Non-Native - throughout N. Amer. and Texas

Coccinella transversoguttata Mulsant - Coccinella transversoguttata Coccinella transversoguttata Mulsant - Coccinella transversoguttata Coccinella transversoguttata Mulsant - Coccinella transversoguttata
     Coccinella transversoguttata Mulsant - "Transverse Lady" - Two historical records from San Antonio and Colorado Co., TX (Dobzhansky 1931) Still present in NM.

Coccinella trifasciata
     Coccinella trifasciata Linnaeus - "Three-banded Lady" - One historical state record (possibly from Amarillo?) and one record from northern NM (Dobzhansky 1931)

Genus Cycloneda 

Cycloneda munda (Say) - Cycloneda munda Cycloneda munda ? - Cycloneda munda larva - Cycloneda munda Cycloneda munda (Say) - Cycloneda munda
     Cycloneda munda (Say) - "Northern Red Lady" - central TX to Dallas, e. US

Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus) - Cycloneda sanguinea Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus) - Cycloneda sanguinea Cycloneda sanquinea (Linnaeus) - Cycloneda sanguinea
     Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus) - "Southern Red Lady" - mostly central TX and south, CA to VA, but mostly CA, TX, FL

Genus Harmonia 

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle - Harmonia axyridis   Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) - Harmonia axyridis  Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle - Harmonia axyridis Lady beetle larva - 
Harmonia axyridis
     Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) - "Harmonia Beetle" Non-Native - throughout N. Amer., though relatively uncommon in the Rocky Mtn states.

Genus Anatis

lady beetle - Anatis labiculata
     Anatis labiculata (Say) - "Fifteen-spot Lady" - central TX, north and east. Few modern TX records. e. N. Amer., but absent from se coast.

Anatis lecontei Casey - Anatis lecontei Anatis lecontei Casey - Anatis lecontei
     Anatis lecontei Casey - "Giant Lady" - Guadalupe Mountains, Rocky Mtns.

Genus Myzia

Myzia interrupta (Casey) - Myzia interrupta Myzia interrupta (Casey) - Myzia interrupta Myzia interrupta (Casey) - Myzia interrupta
     Myzia interrupta (Casey) - "Pumpkin Lady" - Trans-Pecos, w. N. Amer.

Myzia pullata (Say) - Myzia pullata Myzia pullata (Say) - Myzia pullata Ladybird beetle - Myzia pullata Myzia pullata Larva, 8:39am - Myzia pullata
     Myzia pullata (Say) - "Front-spotted Lady" - College Station, e. N. Amer. to Alberta

Genus Olla 

Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) - Olla v-nigrum Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) - Olla v-nigrum Ashy Gray Ladybird Beetle - Olla v-nigrum Ashy Gray Ladybird Beetle - Olla v-nigrum Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) - Olla v-nigrum Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) - Olla v-nigrum  
     Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) - "Ashy Gray Lady" - Common across Texas, mostly southern half of US, south to S. Amer.

Genus Neoharmonia - Feeds on chrysomelid eggs and larvae

Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) - Neoharmonia venusta
     Neoharmonia venusta ampla (Mulsant) -  "(Western) Charming Lady"  - southmost TX to AZ

Neoharmonia venusta venusta (Melsheimer) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta venusta (Melsheimer) - Neoharmonia venusta Neoharmonia venusta venusta (Melsheimer) - Neoharmonia venusta   
    Neoharmonia venusta venusta (Melsheimer) - "(Eastern) Charming Lady" - c. TX to e. US

Genus Mulsantina

Mulsantina luteodorsa (was: Harmonia? Lady Beetle) - Mulsantina luteodorsa
     Mulsantina luteodorsa J. Chapin - "Clay Lady" - Just east of the TX-LA border to Alabama, plus on record in se NC. No known TX records.

 Lady Beetle - Mulsantina picta Beetle - Mulsantina picta Painted Lady Beetle - Mulsantina picta Ladybug - Mulsantina picta Mulsantina picta (Randall) - Mulsantina picta
     Mulsantina picta (Randall) - "Painted Lady" - Trans-Pecos, mostly w. N. Amer. with scattered e. N. Amer. records. Formerly widely distributed across N. Amer.

Genus PsylloboraFeeds on powdery mildews

Psyllobora plagiata Schaeffer - Psyllobora plagiata
    Psyllobora plagiate Schaeffer - "Saddle-bag Lady" - Trans-Pecos, se AZ, rarely collected

Psyllobora renifer Casey - Psyllobora renifer Psyllobora renifer Casey - Psyllobora renifer Psyllobora renifer Casey - Psyllobora renifer Psyllobora renifer Casey - Psyllobora renifer Psyllobora renifer Casey - Psyllobora renifer 
     Psyllobora renifer
Casey - "Renifer Lady" - common across the southern half of Texas, CA to LA

Psyllobora vigintimaculata (Say) - Psyllobora vigintimaculata Lady Beetle Larva ? - Psyllobora vigintimaculata
     Psyllobora vigintimaculata
(Say) - "Twenty-spot Lady" - Not common in TX, most records from se TX, widely dist. across N. Amer. to Alaska.


Subfamily Epilachninae - Feeds on plants in the families Solonaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Fabaceae

Genus Epilachna 

Epilachna borealis (Fabricius) - Epilachna borealis ladybug - Epilachna borealis Very small spiked insect.  - Epilachna borealis
     Epilachna borealis (Fabricius) - "Squash Beetle" - College Station to e. US

Epilachna tredecimnotata (Latreille) - Epilachna tredecimnotata Epilachna tredecimnotata (Latreille) - Epilachna tredecimnotata Epilachna tredecimnotata (Latreille) - Epilachna tredecimnotata
     Epilachna tredecimnotata (Latreille) - "Thirteen-spot Lady" - Trans-Pecos, se. AZ, s. to S. Amer. - rarely collected

Mexican bean beetle - Epilachna varivestis Mexican Bean Beetle  - Epilachna varivestis
     Epilachna varivestis Mulsant - "Mexican Bean Beetle" - One record from El Paso and one from s. TX, mostly occurs in e. US and s. Rocky Mtns to C. Amer.

     Epilachna mexicana (Guérin-Méneville) - "Bold Lady" - Common from ne. Mexico to S. Amer., no Texas records.


Primary References:

Chapin, J.B. 1974. The Coccinellidae of Louisiana (Insecta: Coleoptera). Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 682: 2-87. [Link]

Gaines, J.C. 1933. Notes on Texas Coccinellidae. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 28(5): 211-215. [Full Text]

Gordon, R.D. 1985. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 93(1): 1-912. [Full Text]

Quinn, M.A. 2000. Abundance and distribution of potential arthropod prey species in a typical Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat. Unpublished Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station. ix + 182 pp.

Rouse, E.P., and J.B. Chapin. 1976. A checklist of the Coccinellidae of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 30: 76-77.[ Full PDF]

EGRC - Edward G. Riley Collection, College Station, TX

SNMNH - Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, Norman, OK

TAMUIC - Texas A&M University Insect Collection, College Station, TX - Many specimens were determined by Dr. Joan B. Chapin.

USNM - U.S. National Entomological Collection, Washington, D.C.

UTIC - University of Texas Insect Collection, Austin, TX

Illustrated Beetle Inventory of the Sabal Palm Sanctuary (Cameron Co., TX) - Edward G. Riley & Michael A. Quinn, 2011

Illustrated Beetle Inventory of Lick Creek Park, College Station, Texas Edward G. Riley, 2011

The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Fauna Project - Val Bugh (updated weekly)

List of Coleoptera Collected in Latimer County, Oklahoma by Karl Stephan (2002)

Lost Ladybug Project - Cornell

Checklist of the Coleoptera of Oklahoma - Coccinellidae - Oklahoma State University

BugGuide - Iowa State University


Further Reading:

Acorn, J. 2007. Ladybugs of Alberta, Finding the Spots and Connecting the Dots. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton. xxx + 169 pp.

Adriano, G., N. Vandenberg, J. McHugh, J. Forrester, S. Slipinski, K. Miller, L. Shapiro, M. Whiting. 2009. The evolution of food preferences in Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 215-231.

Akbar, W., C.E. Carlton, and T.E. Reagan. Diomus terminatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) life cycle, larval morphology, and potential as a biological control agent of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(1): 96-103.

Alyokhin, A. and G. Sewell. 2004. Changes in a lady beetle community following the establishment of three alien species. Biological Invasions 6: 463-471.

Angelet, G.W. and R.L. Jacques. 1975. The establishment of Coccinella septempunctata L. in the Continental United States. USDA Cooperative Economic Insect Report 25: 883-884.

Angalet, G.W., J.M. Tropp, and A.N. Eggart. 1979. Coccinella septempunctata in the United States: recolonizations and notes on its ecology. Environmental Entomology, 8: 896–901.

Balduf, W.V. 1935. The Bionomics of Entomophagous Coleoptera. Chicago, New York, St. Louis. 220 pp.

Banks, C.J. 1955. An ecological study of Coccinellidae associated with Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba. Bulletin of Entomological Research 45: 561-587.

Banks, C.J. 1957. The behaviour of individual coccinellid larvae on plants. The British Journal of Animal Behaviour 5: 12-24.

Belicek, J. 1976. Coccinellidae of western Canada and Alaska with analyses of the transmontane zoogeographic relationships between the fauna of British Columbia and Alberta (Insecta:Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 12: 283-409.

Bennett, F.D. and R.D. Gordon. 1991. New Florida ladybeetle. Florida Entomologist 74: 598-599.

Bentley, B.L. 1977. Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 407-427.

Biddinger, D., D. Weber, and L. Hull. 2009. Coccinellidae as predators of mites: Stethorini in biological control. Biological Control, 51: 268-283.

Blackman, R.L. 1965. Studies on specificity in Coccinellidae. Annals of Applied Biology 56: 336-38.

Blaisdell, F.E. 1892. A new species of Coleoptera from California. Entomological News 3: 51.

Blatchley, W.S. 1910. An illustrated and descriptive catalogue of the Coleoptera or beetles (exclusive of Rhynchophora) known to occur in Indiana. Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis. 1385 pp.

Blatchley, W.S. 1917. On some new or noteworthy Coleoptera from the west coast of Florida. Canadian Entomologist 49: 137-143.

Bold, T.J. 1873. Note on the recent occurrence in Northumberland and Durham of the Camberwell Beauty Butterfly. Tyneside Naturalists’ Field Club, Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne. 5: 30-34.

Boving, A. 1917. A generic synopsis of coccinellid larvae in the United States National Museum, with a description of the larva of Hyperaspis binotata Say. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 51: 621-650.

Bradley, G.A. 1973. Effect of Formica obscuripes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on the predator-prey relationship between Hyperaspis congressis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Toumeyella numismaticum (Homoptera: Coccidae). Canadian Entomologist 105: 1113-1118.

Brown, H.D. 1972. Predaceous behaviour of four species of coccinellidae (Coleoptera) associated with the wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), in South Africa. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 124: 21-36.

Brown, W.J. 1940. Notes on the American distribution of some species of Coleoptera common to the European and North American continents. Canadian Entomologist 72: 65–78.

Brown, W.J. 1962. A revision of the forms of Coccinella L. occurring in America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Canadian Entomologist 94: 785–808.

Brown, W.J. and R. de Ruette. 1962. An annotated list of the Hippodamiini of Northern America, with a key to the genera (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). CanadianEntomologist 94: 643-652.

Brown, M.W., and S.S. Miller. 1998. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis. Entomological News, 109: 143-151.

Bubienko, K. and D. Ciepielewska. 2010. Ladybirds (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on the beaches of Gdansk. Aphids and other hemipterous insects, 16: 119-125.

Burke, H.R., et al. 1997. Obituary: Jake C. Gaines (1903-1996). American Entomologist 43(3): 191. [PDF]

Cadotte, M.W., S.M. McMahon, and T. Fukami. 2006. Conceptual ecology and invasion biology: reciprocal approaches to nature. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. xviii + 487 pp.

Carnes, E.K. 1912. Collecting ladybirds (Coccinellidae) by the ton. Monthly Bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture, 1: 71-81.

Carroll, S.C., M.N. Parajulee, and M.D. Arnold. 2007. Survey of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) found on Texas high plains cotton, alfalfa and weeds. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference (September 10–14, 2007), Lubbock, TX. [Manuscript]

Carnes, E.K. 1912. An explanation of the hibernating habits of Hippodamia convergens. Monthly bulletin (California. State Commission of Horticulture) 1: 177-188.

Cartwright, B.O., R.D. Eikenbary, G.W. Angalet & R. K. Campbell. 1979. Release and establishment of Coccinella septempunctata in Oklahoma. Environmental Entomology 8(5): 819-823.

Casey, T.L. 1899. A revision of the American Coccinellidae. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 7: 71-169.

Casey, T.L. 1908. Notes on the Coccinellidae, The Canadian Entomologist 40: 393-421.

Casey, T.L. 1924. Additions to the known Coleoptera of North America. Mem. Coleoptera, 11: 1-347.

Chapin, E.A. 1946. Review of the New World species of Hippodamia Dejean (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 106(11): 1-39.

Chapin, J.B. 1971. The Coccinellidae of Louisiana (Insecta: Coleoptera). Doctoral Dissertation. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. xiv + 214 pp.

Chapin, J.B. 1973. New species of lady beetles in the genera Scymnus and Mulsantina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 66: 1071-1073.

Chapin, J.B. 1974. The Coccinellidae of Louisiana (Insecta: Coleoptera). Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 682: 2-87.

Chapin, J.B. 1985. Revision of the genus Mulsantina Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78: 348-368.

Chapin, J.B., and V.A. Brou. 1991. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), the third species of the genus to be found in the United States (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93(3): 630-635. Full PDF (First published report of this sp. for N. Amer.)

Chapman, J.A., Romer, J.I. & Stark, J. 1955. Ladybird beetles and army cutworm adults as food for grizzly bears in Montana. Ecology, 36: 156-158.

Chazeau, J., J. Étienne and H. Fürsch. 1974. Les Coccinellidae de l'Île de la Réunion (Insecta Coleoptera). Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle (3), 210(zoology 140): 265-297.

Clausen, C.P. 1916. Life-History and feeding records of a series of California Coccinellidae. University of California Publications, Entomology 1(6): 251-300.

Clausen, C.P. 1972. Entomophagous Insects. Hafner Publishing, New York. x + 688 pp.

Colautti, R.J. and H.J. MacIsaac. 2004. A neutral terminology to define ‘invasive’ species. Diversity and Distributions 10: 135-141.

Colunga-Garcia, M, and S.H. Gage. 1998. Arrival, establishment, and habitat use of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in a Michigan landscape. Environmental Entomology. 27: 1574–1580.

Conway, H. E. and T. J. Kring. 2010 Coccinellids associated with the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in northeast Arkansas cotton. Journal of Entomological Science 45(2): 129-139.

Crotch, G.R. 1873. Revision of the Coccinellidae of the United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 4: 363-382.

Crotch, G.R. 1874a. Descriptions of new species of Coleoptera from the Pacific Coast of the United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 5: 73-80.

Crotch, G.R. 1874b. A revision of the Coleopterous family Coccinellidae. London, 311 pp.

Dailey, P.J., R.C. Graves, and J.M. Kingsolver. 1978. Survey of Coleoptera on the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, at one site in Ohio. The Coleopterists Bulletin 32: 223–229.

Davidson, L., E. Evans. 2010. Frass analysis of diets of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Utah alfalfa fields. Environmental Entomology, 39(2): 576-582.

DeGeer, C. 1775. Memoires pour Servir a l'Histoire des Insectes. Vol. 5. Stockholm, 448 pp.

Denemark, E. and J. Losey. 2010. Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88.

Dixon, A.F.G. 2000. Insect predator-prey dynamics: ladybird beetles and biological control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ix + 257 pp.

Dobzhansky, T. 1931. The North American beetles of the genus Coccinella. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 80(4): 1–32.

Dobzhansky, T. 1933. Geographical variation in ladybeetles. The American Naturalist. 67: 97–126.

Dobzhansky, T. 1941. Beetles of the genus Hyperaspis inhabiting the United States. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 101(6): 1-94.

Douglass, J.R. 1930. Hibernation of the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guer., on a mountain peak in New Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology , 23: 288.

Doutt, R.L. 1958. Vice, virtue and the vedalia. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 4: 119–123.

Drea, J.J., Jr. 1956. A biological analysis of the California Chilocorini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Dreistadt, S.H., K.S. Hagen, and L.G. Bezark. 1995. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), first western United States record for the Asiatic lady beetle. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 71: 135-136.

Eddy, C.O. 1940. The Mexican bean beetle, a new pest in Louisiana. In: Entomological Progress. No. 2. Bulletin of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 323: 37-38.

Edwards, J.G. 1957. Entomology above timberline: II. The attraction of ladybird beetles to mountain tops. Coleopterists’ Bulletin, 11: 41-46.

Elliott, N., R. Kieckhefer, and W. Kauffman. 1996. Effects of an invading coccinellid on native coccinellids in an agricultural landscape. Oecologia, 105(4): 537–544.

Elton, C.S. 1958. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen Co., London. 181 pp.

Evans, E.W. 1991. Intra- versus inter-specific interactions of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) attacking aphids. Oecologia 87: 401–408.

Evans, E.W. 2000. Morphology of invasion: body size patterns associated with establishment of Coccinella septempunctata in western North America. European Journal of Entomology 97: 469–474.

Evans, E.W. 2004. Habitat displacement of North American ladybirds by an introduced species. Ecology 85: 637–647.

Ewert, M.A. & H.C. Chiang. 1966. Dispersal of three species of coccinellids in corn fields. Canadian Entomologist 98: 999-1003.

Fabricius, J.C. 1775. Systema Entomologiae. Lipsiae, 832 pp.

Fauske, G.M., P.P. Tinerella, and D.A. Rider. 2003. A list of the lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of North Dakota with new records from North Dakota and Minnesota. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76: 38-46.

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